Acupuncture CEU Course: Overview of TCM Classics and Doctrines
This course presents an introduction to the major TCM doctrines and schools of thoughts including Taoist healing arts, focusing on significant TCM classic works/texts.
By understanding these concepts and doctrines, the students will gain a deeper understanding of the formation and development of TCM theories and practices.
Learn the history and development of the major TCM doctrines, and how these doctrines influence the evolution and development of TCM
Acquire basic familiarity with key concepts of major TCM doctrines and schools of thoughts, including a survey of important physicians and their works/texts
Understand and be able to differentiate and apply these TCM concepts to clinical settings
TCM is a convergence, distillation, and collection of different doctrines, theories and practices
a work of art of recognized and established value. “his books have become classics”
synonyms: definitive example, model, epitome, paradigm, exemplar
a garment of a simple, elegant, and long-lasting style.
a thing that is memorable and a very good example of its kind. “he’s hoping that tomorrow’s game will be a classic“
a school subject that involves the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature, philosophy, and history.
the works of ancient Greek and Latin writers and philosophers.
a major sports tournament or competition, as in golf or tennis.
“dozens of celebrity golfers attended the Bob Hope Desert Classic”
An exemplary work in TCM that is long lasting and continues to have great impact on the development of TCM.
According to the holdings in 113 library in China, there are currently 12,124 counts of TCM documents which does not include long lost ones.
Some are new writings, some are compilations, some are editions, and some are commentaries.
a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a church, political party, or other group. “the doctrine of predestination”
synonyms: creed, credo, dogma, belief, teaching, ideology
a stated principle of government policy, mainly in foreign or military affairs. “the Monroe Doctrine”
A teaching/school of thoughts in TCM that had a great impact on the development of TCM.
Doctrines tends to be clinically relevant with established theories, elaborations from a group of doctors, and well published documentations.
Doctrine Formation Process
Many of these doctrines have already integrated into your regular western (modern) educational structured course work
They usually present an overview and frequently without in-depth exploration and historical context.
To study TCM well, we need to have a deeper understanding of the theories and practices
This can be accomplished by studying the classics and the doctrines
A survey of these doctrines will lead us to have a good overview of these physicians and their works
Going to the Source
The Formation Requirement of a TCM Doctrine/School of Thoughts
It has a central concept or topic.
It is formed by a central figure and expanded upon by sufficient others.
It is supported by publications that have created a substantial impact in the development of TCM and the society.
By Studying the Classics
Better grasp of fundamental principles.
Better understanding of historical, theoretical and clinical development.
Better clinical effectiveness.
Three Ways to enhance learning in TCM Classics
Elaborate on the main concepts
Familiarize with the characteristics and the stories of the doctors
Focus on clinical applicability
Focus on original text reading
The Formation of TCM Schools of Thoughts
Began at Spring-Autumn and Warring States Era
Social force of “Hundred Schools of Thoughts”
Sufficient and strong TCM Fundamentals formation
Formation of different schools of thoughts, two main ones
Medical Classics 医经学派 (Yi Jing Xue Pai)
Formulary 医方学派 (Yi Fang Xue Pai)
Main TCM Schools of Thoughts
Yi Xue Liu Pai 医学流派
Dao Yi Xue Pai 道医学派 (Taoist Medicine Doctrine)
Yi Jing Xue Pai 医经学派 (Medical Classics Doctrine)
Yi Fang Xue Pai 医方学派 (Formulary Doctrine)
Shang Han Xue Pai 伤寒学派 (Cold Injury Doctrine)
He Jian Xue Pai 河间学派 (Fire-Heat Doctrine)
Yi Shui Xue Pai 易水学派 (Zang Fu Doctrine)
Gong Xie Xue Pai 攻邪学派 (Detoxification Doctrine)
Dan Xi Xue Pai 丹溪学派 (Yang Excess Yin Deficient Doctrine)
Wen Bu Xue Pai 温补学派 (Warming Tonification Doctrine)
Wen Bing Xue Pai 温病学派 (Wen Injury Doctrine)
Hui Tong Xue Pai 汇通学派 (Integrative Medicine Doctrine)
Overview Description of TCM Doctrines
Dao Jia Yi Xue 道家医学
(Taoist Medicine Doctrine)
Initiation documented during Zhou Dynasty, 1028 BCE
Central Theme: Longevity, Disease Prevention, Immortality
Doctors: Ge Hong, Sun Simiao, Wang Bing, Zhang Jie Bing, etc.
Publications: Huang Di Nei Jing, Dao Zang 道藏 (Taoist Cannon), Qian Jin Yao Fang 千金要方, Qian Jin Yi Fang 千金翼方, Lei Jing 类经, Jing Yue Quan Shu 景岳全书
Yi Jing Xue Pai 医经学派
(Medical Classics Doctrine)
Spring Autumn Era
Central Theme: The study and elaboration of Neijing and other related TCM classical literatures
Doctor: Unknown, Qin Yue Ren 秦越人, Hua Tuo 华陀, Zhang Zhong Jing 张仲景, Huang Fu Mi 皇甫谧
Publications: Huang Di Nei Jing 黄帝内经Huang Di Ba Shi Yi Nan Jing 黄帝八十一难经, Zhong Zang Jing 中藏经, Shang Han Lun 伤寒论, Jia Yi Jing 甲乙经.
Yi Fang Xue Pai 医方学派
Spring Autumn Era
Two distinct central themes (Two branches)
study of formulation from Shang Han Za Bing Lun (Classical Formulation Doctrine – Jing Fang Xue Pai)
Study of all experiential formulations (Experiential Formulation Doctrine – Yi Fang Xue Pai)
Classical Formulation Doctrine Central Theme: the study of formulations from Shang Han Za Bing Lun and Huang Di Nei Jing
Doctor: Zhang Zhong Jing 张仲景
Publications: Shang Han Za Bing Lun 伤寒杂病论
Shang Han Lun 伤寒论
Jin Kui Yao Lue Fang Lun 金匮要略方论
Shang Han Xue Pai 伤寒学派
(Cold Injury Doctrine)
Spring Autumn Era
Central Theme: the study and elaboration of diseases due to cold injury (Cold Pathogenesis)
Doctor: Zhang Zhong Jing
Publications: Shang Han Lun 伤寒论
He Jian Xue Pai 河间学派
1110 AD (Song and Jin Dynasties)
Central Theme: Six Pathogens can all transform to Fire (Fire Heat Pathogenesis)
Doctor: Liu Wan Su刘完素 or Liu He Jian 刘河间
Publications: Su Wen Xuan Ji Yuan Bing Shi 素问玄机原病式
Yi Shui Xue Pai 易水学派
(Zang Fu Doctrine)
Central Theme: Zang Fu Differentiation and Earth School
Doctor: Zhang Yuan Su 张元素, Li, Gao 李杲 (Li, Dong Yuan 李东垣 )
Publications: Zhang Zhu Nan 珍珠囊, Pi Wei Lun 脾胃论
Gong Xie Xue Pai 攻邪学派
1156 AD, Song Jin Dynasty
Central theme: All Diseases originates from Toxins, the treatment of attacking toxins
Doctor: Zhang, Cong Zheng 张从正
Publications: Ru Men Shi Qin 儒门事亲
Dan Xi Xue Pai 丹溪学派
(Yang Excess Yin Deficient Doctrine)
Central Theme: Yang is frequently excessive and Yin is frequently deficient, the development of Xiang Huo Lun 相火论 (Ministerial Fire)
Doctor: Zhu Zhen Heng 朱震亨 (Zhu Dan Xi 朱丹溪)
Publications: Ju Fang Fa Hui 局方发挥, Ge Zhi Yu Lun 格致余论
Wen Bu Xue Pai 温补学派
(Warming Tonification Doctrine)
Central Theme: Warming/Tonification of the Ming Men Fire
Doctor: Xue, Ji 薛己, Sun Yi Kui 孙一奎, Zhao Xian Ke 赵献可, Zhang Jie Bin 张介宾, Li Zhong Zi 李中梓
Nei Ke Zhai Yao 内科摘要, Ci Shui Xuan Zhu 赤水玄珠, Yi Guan 医贯, Lei Jing 类经, Yi Zong Bi Du 医宗必读
Wen Bing Xue Pai 温病学派
(Wen Injury Doctrine)
Central Theme: Wen Disease (infectious disease and plague pathogenesis)
Doctor: Wu Yao Xing 吴有性, Dai Tian Zhang 戴天章, Yu Lin余霖, Ye Gui 叶桂, Xue Xue 薛雪, Wu Tang 吴瑭, Wang Shi Xiong 王士雄
Publications: Wen Yi Lun 温疫论, Guang Wen Yi Lun 广温疫论, Yi Zhen Yi De 疫疹一得, Wen Re Lun Zhi 温热论治, Shi Re Tiao Bian 湿热条辩, Wen Bing Tiao Bian 温病条辩, Wen Re Jing Wei 温热经纬
Hui Tong Xue Pai 汇通学派
(Integrative Medicine Doctrine)
Central Theme – Integration of TCM and Western Medicine
Doctors: Wang Ang 汪昂, Zhao Xue Min 赵学敏, Wang Xue Quan 王学权, Wang Qing Ren 王清任, Chen Ding Tai 陈定泰, Wang Hong Han王宏翰, Zhu Pei Wen 朱沛文, Tang Zong Hai 唐宗海, Zhang Xi Chun 张锡纯, Yun Shu Jue 恽树珏, Lu Peng Nian 陆彭年
Publications: Ben Cao Bei Yao 本草备要, Ben Cao Gang Mu Shi Yi 本草纲目拾遗, Chong Qing Tang Sui Bi 重庆堂随笔, Yi Lin Gai Cuo 医林改错, Yi Tan Chuan Zhen 医谈传真, Yi Xue Yuan Shi 医学原始, Hua Yang Zang Xiang Yue Zuan 华洋脏象约纂, Zhong Xi Hui Tong Yi Jing Jing Yi 中西汇通医经精义,Yi Xue Zhong Zhong Can Xi Lu 医学衷中参西录, Wen Yuan Ji 文苑集, Lu Shi Lun Yi Ji 陆氏论医集
By exploring the richness of this medical tradition can we truly appreciate the depth and the breadth of this medicine.
What we learn from the past gives us the foundation to move forward. The better understanding we have about each doctrine, the better we become in our doctoring skills.